Megalonyx references

Source: Dr. Greg McDonald
Senior Curator of Natural History
Park Museum Management Program
National Park Service

Akersten, W. A. 1970. Red Light Local Fauna (Blancan) of the Love Formation, southeastern Hudspeth County, Texas. Texas Memorial Museum Bulletin 20: 1 52.

Boyd, J. P. 1958. The Megalonyx, the Megatherium and Thomas Jefferson's lapse of memory. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 102: 420 435.

Calvin, S. 1911. Aftonian mammalian fauna 2. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 22: 207 216.

Chatters, J.C., S. Hackenberger, and H.G. McDonald. 2004. A Jefferson’s ground sloth from the terminal Pleistocene of Central Washington. Current Research in the Pleistocene 21:93-94.

Clausen, C. J., H. K. Brooks and A. B. Wesolowsky. 1975. Florida spring confirmed as 10,000 year old early man site. The Florida Anthropologist 28(3) pt. 2: 38 pp.

Claypoole, E. W. 1891. Megalonyx in Holmes County, Ohio 1890, Part 1. American Geology 7(3): 122 132.

-------- 1891b. Megalonyx in Holmes County, Ohio. Part. II. American Geology 7(3): 149-153.

Claypoole, E. W. 1897. Man and Megalonyx in North America. American Geology 20: 52 54.

Cooper, W. 1831. On a collection of fossil bones disinterred at Big Bone Lick, Kentucky in September 1830 and recently brought to New York. American Journal of Science and Arts ser. I vol. 20 art. 22: 370 372.

Cooper, W. 1833. A report on some fossil bones from Virginia, with a notice of such parts of the skeleton of the animal as have been hitherto discovered and remarks on the affinities which they indicate. Annales of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York 3: 167 173.

Cope, E. D. 1871. Preliminary report on vertebrata discovered in the Port Kennedy Bone Cave. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12: 73 102.

Cope, E.D. 1889. The edentata of North America. American Naturalist 23(272): 657 664.

Cope, E.D. 1893. A Preliminary report on the vertebrate paleontology of the Llano Estacado. Fourth Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas 1892: 136 pp.

Cope, E.D. 1895. On some Pleistocene Mammalia from Petite Anse Louisiana. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 34: 458 463.

Cope, E.D. 1899. Vertebrate remains from the Port Kennedy Bone Deposit. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia. ser. 2 vol. 2: 193 267.

Cowan, I. McT. 1941. Fossil and subfossil mammals from the Quaternary of British Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. 3rd ser. 35(4): 39 50.

Cuvier, G. 1812. Sur le Megalonix. Recherches sur les Ossemens de Quadrupeds 4: 1 18.

Desmarest, M. A. G. 1822. Mammaloqie ou descrition des especes de mammiferes. Imprimeur Libbrarre rue des Poitevins no. 6:555 pp.

Devlevan, F. 1926. Some recent finds of remains of the extinct ground sloth in southwest Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences, 33: 203-205.

Dickeson, M. 1846. Megalonyx from Natchez Mississippi. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 3(5): 106 107.

Domning, D. P. 1969. A List, Bibliography and Index of Fossil Vertebrates of Louisiana and Mississippi. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geology Society 19: 385 422.

Downs, T. and J. A. White. 1968. A vertebrate faunal succession in superimposed sediments from late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene in California. XXIII International Congress: 41 47.

Erickson, B. R. 1968. A claw of Megalonyx (Ground Sloth) from Minnesota. Scientific Publications of the Science Museum new series 1(3): 1 6.

Eshelman, R. E. 1975. Geology and paleontology of the early Pleistocene (late Blancan) White Rock Fauna from North Central Kansas. Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology No. 13: 60 pp.

Frick, C. 1921. Extinct vertebrate faunas of the Badlands of Bautista Creek and San Timoteo Canon Southern California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 12(5): 277 424.

Furlong, E. L. 1906. The exploration of Samwell Cave. American Journal of Science 22(129) art. 22: 235 247.

Galbreath, E. C. 1938. Post glacial fossil vertebrates from east central Illinois. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology series 6:303 313.

Gazin, C. L. 1935. Gravigrade sloth remains from the late Pliocene and Pleistocene of Idaho. Journal of Mammology 15: 52 60.

Gazin, C.L. 1950. Annotated list of fossil mammalia associated with human remains at Melbourne, Florida. Washington Academy of Science Journal 40: 397 404.

Gillette, D.D., H.G. McDonald and M. C. Hayden. 1999. The first record of Jefferson's Ground Sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii, in Utah (Pleistocene, Rancholabrean Land Mammal Age). Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1:509-521.

Guilday, J. E., H. W. Hamilton and A. D. McCrady. 1969. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Robinson Cave, Overton County, Tennessee. Palaeovertebrata 2: 25 75.

Gustafson, E.P. 1978. The vertebrate faunas of the Pliocene Ringold Formation, south-central Washington. Bulletin Museum Natural History University Oregon No. 23:62 pp.

Gut, H. J. and C. E. Ray. 1963. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Reddick, Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 26: 315 328.

Harington, C. R. 1970. Ice age mammal research in the Yukon Territory and Alaska. In: Early Man and Environments in Northwest North America. R. A. Smith and J. W. Smith, ed. University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, Alberta: 35 51.

Harlan, R. 1825. Fauna Americana. Anthony Finley, Philadelphia: 201 pp.

Harlan, R. 1831. Description of the fossil bones of the Megalonyx discovered in "White Cave" Kentucky. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia ser. 1 vol. 6: 269 288.

Hay, O. P. 1914. Mammals of the Pleistocene. Geological Survey of Iowa vol. 23, Annual Report for 1912: 106 143.

H ay, O.P. 1923. The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrated animals from the states east of the Mississippi River and from Canadian Provinces east of longitude 95 degrees. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 322: 499 pp.

Hay, O.P. 1924. The Pleistocene of the middle region of North America and its vertebrated animals. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 322A: 385 pp.

Hay, O.P. 1927. The Pleistocene of the western region of North America and its vertebrated animals. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 322b: 346 pp.

Hibbard, C. W. 1938. An upper Pliocene fauna from Meade County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40: 239 265.

Hibbard, C.W. 1949. Pleistocene vertebrate paleontology in North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin 60: 1417 1428.

Hibbard, C.W. 1970. Pleistocene mammalian local faunas from the Great Plains and Central Lowland Provinces of the United States. In: Pleistocene and Recent environments of the Central Great Plains. Department of Geology, University of Kansas Special Publication 3: 395 433.

Hibbard, C. W., C. E. Ray, D. E. Savage, D. W. Taylor and J. E. Guilday. 1965. Quaternary mammals of North America. In: The Quaternary of the United States. H. E. Wright and D. G. Frey (ed.) Princeton Univ. Press: 509 525.

Hibbard, C.W. and E. S. Riggs. 1949. Upper Pliocene vertebrates from Keefe Canyon, Meade County, Kansas. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 60: 829 860.

Hibbard, C.W. and D. W. Taylor. 1960. Two late Pleistocene faunas from southwestern Kansas. University of Michigan, Museum of Paleontology Contributions 16: 223 pp.

Hirschfeld, S. E. and S. D. Webb. 1968. Plio Pleistocene Megalonychid sloths of North America. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 12(5): 213 296.

Hoganson, J.W. and H.G. McDonald. 2007. The first report of the occurrence of Jefferson’s ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) in North Dakota and its paleobiogeographical and paleoecological significance. Journal of Mammalogy 88(1):73-80.

Holman, J. A., and C. J. Clausen. 1984. Fossil vertebrates associated with Paleo-Indian artifact at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4(1): 146-154.

Holmes, W. W. and G. G. Simpson. 1931. Pleistocene exploration and fossil edentates in Florida. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History vol. 59, art. 7: 383 418.

Holsinger, J. R. 1967. Some bones and shields from a cave in southwest Virginia. National Speleological Society News 25(11): 198 200.

Hopkins, M., R. Bonnichsen and D. Fortsch. 1969. The stratigraphic position and faunal associates of Bison (Gigantobison) latifrons in southeastern Idaho: A progress report. Tebiwa 12(1):1-8.

Hovey, H. C. 1891. The latest facts about the Megalonyx. Scientific American:161.

Jefferson, G.T. 1991. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California: Part Two, Mammals. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County Technical Reports No. 7:129 pp.

Jefferson, T. 1799. A memoir on the discovery of certain bones of a quadruped of the clawed kind in the western parts of Virginia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4: 246 250.

Johnston, C. S. and D. E. Savage. 1955. A survey of various late Cenozoic vertebrate faunas of the panhandle of Texas. Part I Introduction; Descriptions of Localities, Preliminary Faunal Lists. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 31: 27 50.

Joor, J. F. 1895. Notes on a collection of archaeological and geological specimens collected in a trip to Avery's Island (Petite Anse) February 1st 1890. American Naturalist 29: 394 398.

Kaye, J. M. 1974. Pleistocene sediment and vertebrate fossil associations in the Mississippi Black Belt: A genetic approach. Ph.D. Dissertation. Louisiana State University, Department of Geology: 116pp.

Leidy, J. 1855. A memoir on the extinct sloth tribe of North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 7: 1 68.

Leidy, J. 1860. Remarks on the structure of the feet in Megalonyx. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society n.s. 11: 107.

Leidy, J. 1863. Notice of some vertebrate remains from Hardin County, Texas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 20: 174 176.

Leite, M.B. 1990. Stratigraphy and mammalian paleontology of the Ash Hollow Formation (Upper Miocene) on the north shore of Lake McConaughy, Keith County, Nebraska. University Wyoming Contributions Geology 
28(1):1-29.

Lillegraven, J. A. 1967. Bison crassicornis and the ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii in the Kansas Pleistocene. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3 4): 294 300.

Lindahl, J. 1892. Description of the skull of Megalonyx leidyi n. sp. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 17: l 10.

Lindsay, E. H., N. M. Johnson and N. D. Updyke. 1975. Preliminary correlation of North American land mammal ages and geomagnetic chronology. University of Michigan, Papers in Paleontology 12: 111 119.

Lipps, L. and C. E. Ray. 1967. The Pleistocene fossiliferous deposit at Ladds, Bartow County, Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 25(3): 113 119.

Lundelius, E. L. 1972. Fossil vertebrates, late Pleistocene Ingleside Fauna, San Patricio County, Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations no.77: 74 pp.

Lyon, G. M. 1938. Megalonyx milleri, a new Pleistocene ground sloth from southern California. San Diego Society of Natural History Transactions 9: 15 30.

Marsh, O. C. 1874. Notice of new tertiary Mammalia 3. American Journal of Science 7(3), art. 49: 531 534.

Martin, R. A. and S. D. Webb. 1974. Late Pleistocene mammals from the Devil's Den Fauna, Levy County. In; Pleistocene Mammals of Florida. S. D. Webb (ed.) University Presses of Florida, Gainesville:114 145.

Matthew, W.D. 1918. Contributions to the Snake Creek fauna. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History vol. 38, art. 7: 183 229.

Matthew, W.D. 1924. Third contribution to the Snake Creek fauna. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 50: 59 210.

Mawby, J.E. 1967. Fossil vertebrates of the Tule Springs Site, Nevada. In: Pleistocene Studies in Southern Nevada Part 2. Nevada State Museum Anthropology Papers 13: 105 129.

McAnulty, W.N. 1941. New Pleistocene ground sloth material from Texas. Proceedings of the Texas Academy of Science 24(14):

McCarroll, S.M. and J.L. Dobie. 1994. Additional Pleistocene mammals from Bogue Chitto Creek, Dallas County, Alabama. Journal Alabama Academy Science 65(1):16-27.

McDonald, H.G. 1978. A supernumerary tooth in the ground sloth Megalonyx (Edentata, Mammalia). Florida Scientist 41(1):12-14.

McDonald, H.G. 1996. Biogeography and paleoecology of ground sloths in California, Arizona and Nevada. San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly 43(1):61-65.

McDonald, H.G. 1998. Massacre Rocks local fauna from the Pleistocene of southeastern Idaho. pp. 156-172 in W.A. Akersten, H.G. McDonald, J. Meldrum and M.T. Flints (eds.). And Whereas ... Papers on the Vertebrate Paleontology of Idaho honoring John A. White, Vol. 1. Idaho Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper 36.

McDonald, H.G. 1998. The Sloth, the President, and the Airport. Washington Geology 26(1):40-42.

McDonald, H.G. and D.C. Anderson. 1983. A well-preserved ground sloth (Megalonyx) cranium from Turin, Monona County, Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy Science 90(4):134-140.

McDonald, H.G. and E. Anderson. 1975. A late Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from southeastern Idaho. Tebiwa 18(1): 20 37. 

McDonald, H.G., C.R. Harington and G. De Iuliis. 2000. The ground sloth, Megalonyx, from Pleistocene deposits of the Old Crow Basin, Yukon, Canada. Arctic 53(3):213-220. 

McDonald, H.G., W.E. Miller and T.H. Morris. 2001. Taphonomy and significance of Jefferson's Ground Sloth (Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Utah. Western North America Naturalist 61(1):64-77.

McDonald, H.G. and T.H. Heaton. 1993. Additions to the vertebrate fauna of the Kuchta Sand Pit Locality (Late Blancan-Early Irvingtonian), Yankton County, South Dakota. Current Research in the Pleistocene 10:101-
103.

McDonald, H.G. and C.E. Ray. 1990. The extinct sloth, Megalonyx, (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the United States Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103(1):1-5.

Meade, G.E. 1945. The Blanco Fauna. University of Texas Publication 4401:509 559.

Meade, G.E. 1953. An early Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Frederick, Oklahoma. Journal of Geology 61: 452 460.

Mercer, H. C. 1897. The finding of the remains of the fossil sloth at Big Bone Cave, Tennessee in 1896. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 36: 3 70.

Merriam, J. C. and J. P. Buwalda. 19l7. Age of strata referred to Ellensburg Formation in the White Cliffs of the Columbia River. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 10: 255 266.

Miller, W. E. 1971. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Los Angeles Basin vicinity (exclusive of Rancho La Brea). Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History 10: 1 124.

Mills, R. 1975. A ground sloth, Megalonyx, from a Pleistocene site in Darke County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 75(3): 147 155.

Morgan, G.S. and R.B. Ridgway. 1987. Late Pliocene (Late Blancan) vertebrates from the St. Petersburg Times Site, Pinellas County, Florida, with a brief review of Florida Blancan faunas. Papers in Florida Paleontology 
No. 1:22 pp.

Oelrich, T. M. 1953. Additional mammals from the Rexroad Fauna. Journal of Mammalogy 33(3):373 378.

Olson, E. C. 1940. A late Pleistocene fauna from Herculaneum Missouri. Journal of Geology 48: 32 57.

Orton, E. 1891. On the occurrence of Megalonyx jeffersonii in central Ohio. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 2: 235.

Packard, E. L. 1952. Fossil edentates of Oregon. Oregon State Monographs, Studies in Geology. 16pp.

Parmalee, P. W., R. D. Oesch and J. E. GuiIday. 1969. Pleistocene and Recent vertebrate faunas from Crankshaft Cave, Missouri. Reports of Investigations, Illinois State Museum No. 14: 37 pp.

Parmalee, P. W. and R. D. Oesch. 1972. Pleistocene and Recent faunas from Brynjulfson Caves, Missouri. Reports of Investigations, Illinois State Museum No. 25: 52 pp.

Paulson, G. R. 1961. The mammals of the Cudahy fauna. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science 46: 127 153.

Peterson, O. A. 1917. A fossil bearing alluvial deposit in Saltville Valley, Virginia. Annals Carnegie Museum 11(3 4):469 474.

Peterson, O.A. 1926. The fossils of Frankstown Cave, Blair County, Pennsylvania. Annals Carnegie Museum 16(2): 249 315.

Ray, C. E. 1957. A List, Bibliography and Index of the Fossil Vertebrates of Florida. Florida. Geological Survey Special Publication No. 3: 1 175.

Ray, C. E. 1958. Additions to the Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Melbourne. Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 119(7): 421 449.

Ray, C.E. 1967. Pleistocene mammals from Ladds, Bartow County, Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 25(3): 120 150.

Ray, C.E., B. N. Cooper and W. S. Benninghoff. 1967. Fossil mammals and pollen in a late Pleistocene deposit at Saltville, Virginia. Journal of Paleontology 41 (3): 608 622.

Ray, C.E., S. J. Olson and H. J. Gut. 1963. Three mammals new to the Pleistocene fauna and a reconsideration of five earlier records. Journal of Mammalogy 44 (3): 373-395.

Redmond, B. and H.G. McDonald. 2008. Evidence of human predation on Jefferson’s Ground Sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) from eastern North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3) Supplement: 130A.

Richards, H. 1951. Some recent discoveries of Pleistocene mammals from New Jersey. New Jersey Department of Conservation Bulletin 60: 2 8.

Safford, J. M. 1892. The pelvis of Megalonyx and other bones from Big Bone Cave, Tennessee. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 3: 121 123.

Savage, D. E. 1946. A mandible of Megalonyx from the Pleistocene of Oklahoma. Journal of Mammalogy 27(4): 388 390.

Savage, D.E. 1951. Late Cenozoic vertebrates of the San Francisco Bay region. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 28: 215 314.

Schubert, B.W., R.W. Graham, H.G. McDonald, E.C. Grimm and T.W. Stafford Jr. 2004. Latest Pleistocene paleoecology of Megalonyx jeffersonii and Cervalces scotti. Quaternary Research 61(2):231-240.

Schultz, C. B. and T. M. Stout. 1948. Pleistocene mammals and terraces in the Great Plains. Geological Society of America Bulletin 59: 553 588.

Schultz, C. B., L. G. Tanner, F. C. Whitmore, Jr., L. L. Ray and E. C. Crawford. 1963. Paleontological investigations at Big Bone Lick State Park, Kentucky: A preliminary report. Science 142:1167 1169.

Semken, H. A. 1966. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the McPherson Equus Beds (Sandhill local fauna) McPherson County, Kansas. Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 20(6): 121 178.

Shotwell, J. A. 1956. Hemphillian mammalian assemblage from north eastern Oregon. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 67: 717 738.

Shotwell, J.A. 1970. Pliocene mammals of southeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho. Oregon Museum of Natural History no. 17: 103 pp.

Simpson, G. G. 1928. Pleistocene mammals from a cave in Citrus County, Florida. American Museum Novitates 328: 16 pp.

Simpson, G.G. 1929. Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, Florida. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin 56:561 599.

Simpson, G.G. 1930. Additions to the Pleistocene of Florida. American Museum of Natural History Novitates no. 406: 14 pp.

Sinclair, W.J. 1905. New mammalia from the Quaternary Caves of California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 4: 145 161.

Sinclair, W.J. 1915. Additions to the fauna of the lower Pliocene Snake Creek Beds (results of the Princeton University 1914 expedition to Nebraska). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 54: 73 95.

Slaughter, B. H. 1962. The Hill Schuler local faunas of the Upper Trinity River, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas Report of Investigations No. 48: 75 pp.

Slaughter, B.H. 1966. The Moore Pit local fauna: Pleistocene of Texas. Journal of Paleontology 40: 78 91.

Stock, C. 1913. Nothrotherium and Megalonyx from the Pleistocene of southern California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 7:341 358.

Stock, C. 1918. The Pleistocene fauna of Hawver Cave. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 10: 461 515.

Stock, C. 1925. Cenozoic gravigrade edentates of western North America. Carnegie Institute Washington Publcation 331: 206 pp.

Stock, C. 1942. A ground sloth in Alaska. Science 95: 552 553.

Stock, C. 1943. The cave of San Josecito, Mexico. Bach Graduate School of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology Contributions. no. 361: 8 pp.

Stock, C. and H. G. Richards. 1949. A Megalonyx tooth from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Science 1110: 709 710.

Stovall, J. W. 1940. Megalonyx hogani, a new species of ground sloth from Gould, Oklahoma. American Journal of Science 238: 140 146.

Stovall, J.W. and W. N. McAnulty. 1950. The vertebrate fauna and geological age of Trinity River Terraces in Henderson County, Texas. American Midland Naturalist 44: 211 249.

Strain, W. S. 1966. Blancan mammalian fauna and Pleistocene formations, Hudspeth County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum 10: 55pp.

Udden, J. A. 1891. Megalonyx beds in Kansas. The American Geologist 340-345.

Weigel, R. D. 1962. Fossil vertebrates of Vero, Florida. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication no. 10: 59 pp.

Wilson, M.C., H.G. McDonald, and C.L. Hill. 2005. Fossil ground sloths, Megalonyx and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the Doeden local fauna, Montana. Current Research in the Pleistocene 22:83-85.

Wistar, C. 1799. Description of the bones deposited by President Jefferson in the Museum of the Society. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 1st series vol. 4: 526 531.

Wyman, J. 1850. Notice of fossil bones from the neighborhood of Memphis, Tennessee. American Journal of Science vol. 60, art. 8: 56 64.